网上读书园地

 找回密码
 注册
搜索
热搜: 超星 读书 找书
查看: 614|回复: 0

[【学科前沿】] 叶酸能减少心脏疾病

[复制链接]
发表于 2007-1-3 08:39:04 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Use Folic Acid to Reduce Heart Disease, Say Experts
专家认为叶酸可以降低心脏疾病的发生

November 25, 2006 - The scientific evidence is strong enough to justify using folic acid as a cheap and simple way of reducing heart disease and strokes, say researchers in this week抯 British Medical Journal (BMJ).
2006年11月25日———本周英国医学杂志(BMJ)的研究者说有充分的科学证据证实服用叶酸是一种减少心脏疾病和卒中发生的便宜而且简单有效的方法。
Debate continues over whether raised homocysteine levels in the blood (an amino acid implicated in the development of arterial disease) causes heart disease and stroke, and whether folic acid, which lowers homocysteine, will help reduce the risk of these disorders.
究竟是血中同型半胱氨酸水平的升高导致心脏疾病和卒中还是叶酸降低了其水平而减少了风险仍然存在争议。

Related Stories相关报道

Encouraging Results for Folic Acid as a Cancer Prevention Drug

June 12, 2006 - Folic acid supplements may prevent cancer progression and promote regression of disease, according to a new, but small, study. The study found that 31 of 43 patients with the precancerous laryngeal lesion called leucoplakia demonstrated 50 percent or greater reduction in the lesion size after six months of taking folate supplements.
2006年6月12日———一个最新的小型研究发现叶酸制剂可能预防肿瘤进展,加快疾病康复。这个项目发现在43个存在喉部癌前病变组织的的对象中有31人在服用叶酸制剂半年之后肿瘤组织形状减小了一半或者更多。

Government Panel Has Ideas on Supplements, Undecided on Multivitamins
政府委员会支持补充剂却在符合卫生素问题上犹豫不决
They do want more government oversight on vitamins and dietary supplements
“他们的确希望政府能投入更多的经历在维生素和食品补充剂的发展上。”
By Tucker Sutherland, editor
编者 Tucker Sutherland说道。
May 18, 2006
The vast majority of senior citizens take multivitamins and other dietary supplements. Although usage increases with age, it is a growing trend for all Americans, with more than half spending $23 billion a year for the hope of better health. Unfortunately, the National Institutes of Health's panel concluded their extensive study yesterday...
2006年5月18日--大多说老人服用符合维生素和其他饮食补充剂。尽管随着年龄的增长用量要增加,整个美国人服用呈现增长的趋势,半数的人每年大约花费了230亿美元为了使自己更加健康。不幸的是,美国国家健康研究所昨天却发表研究结果,认为~~(原文到此)

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Read more on Nutrition, Vitamins & Supplements
关于营养品 维生素及其制剂的更多知识

So heart expert, Dr David Wald and colleagues set out to clarify the issue. They examined all the evidence from different studies to see whether raised homocysteine is a cause of cardiovascular disease.
目前心脏学家David Wald教授和他的同事正致力于这个问题的研究。他们试图通过分析以前不同研究的结论来证实同型半胱氨酸的升高是否是心血管疾病的病因。
Some studies looked at homocysteine and the occurrence of heart attacks and strokes in large numbers of people (cohort studies), some focused on people with a common genetic variant which increases homocysteine levels to a small extent (genetic studies), while others tested the effects of lowering homocysteine levels (randomized controlled trials).
一些研究着眼于大样本人群中同型半胱氨酸与心脏事件和卒中的关系,一些重点研究发生共同遗传突变导致同型半胱氨酸发生轻度升高的人群,还有就是研究降低同型半胱氨酸水平的作用(随机对照实验)。
The cohort studies and genetic studies yielded similar results, indicating a protective effect from lower homocysteine levels, even though they did not share the same sources of possible error. The randomized trials were too small to be conclusive although their results were consistent with the expected protective effects of folic acid.
群组研究和遗传研究得到了相同的结论,即低同型半胱氨酸水平是一种保护性因素,尽管可能误差不同。随机对照实验则是样本量太小而不能采用,尽管它们的结论跟预想的结果(叶酸的保护性作用)一样。
The conclusion that homocysteine is a cause of cardiovascular disease explains the observations from all the different types of study, even if the results from one type of study are, on their own, insufficient to reach that conclusion, say the authors.
“同型半胱氨酸浓度是心血管疾病的病因。这样的结论可以解释所有不同方法研究的观察结果,即便某种单一的研究不足以得出这种结论。”作者说道。
Since folic acid reduces homocysteine concentrations, it follows that increasing folic acid consumption will reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke.
因为叶酸降低同型半胱氨酸的浓度,同样叶酸浓度的升高就可以降低心脏事件和卒中的风险。
They therefore take the view that the evidence is now sufficient to justify action on lowering homocysteine concentrations, although the position should be reviewed as evidence from ongoing clinical trials emerges.
他们因此认为这些证据足以证实降低同型半胱氨酸浓度的作用,尽管这种作用还需要临床试验的支持。

About Folate (Folacin, Folic Acid)关于叶酸

Ohio State University Extension Fact Sheet
俄亥俄州立大学推荐食谱
This fact sheet is one in a series containing information to help you select foods that provide adequate daily amounts of vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber. Following these guidelines will put your diet in accordance with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, which focus on nine general topics:
这个食谱提供了一系列信息,帮助你选择能够提供充足维生素,矿物质和纤维素的食品。这个指南是和全美饮食指南想一致的,它主要关注以下九个主题:
● Adequate nutrients within calorie needs 满足热量需要的充足营养物
● Weight management 控制体重
● Physical activity 体力活动
● Food groups to encourage: fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and nonfat or low-fat milk and milk products 推荐食物组:水果,蔬菜,全谷物食品,脱脂或者低脂的奶类及奶制品。
● Fats 脂肪
● Carbohydrates 碳水化合物
● Sodium and potassium 钠和钾
● Alcoholic beverages 酒精饮料
● Food safety 食品安全性

What is good food source? 什么是好的食物来源?

A good food source of folate contains a substantial amount of folate in relation to its calorie content and contributes at least 10 percent of the U.S. Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for folate in a selected serving size. The U.S. RDA for folate is 400 micrograms per day. The U.S. RDA given is for adults (except pregnant or lactating women) and children over 4 years of age.
一种好的叶酸食物来源应该能供给足量的热量和以某种形式提供至少10%叶酸的日推荐摄入两。美国的叶酸日推荐摄入量是每天400微克。这是用于成人(除了妊娠期和哺乳期的妇女)和大于四岁的儿童。

The U.S. RDA for folate is the amount of the vitamin used as a standard in nutrition labeling of foods. This allowance is based on the 1968 RDA for 24 sex and age categories set by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences. The 1989 RDA for folate has been set at 180 micrograms per day for women 19 to 50 years of age and 200 micrograms for men 19 to 50 years of age.
美国的叶酸日推荐摄入量是食品分类营养物的标准。这个量是基于1968年美国国家科学院食品营养组对24类性别年龄各异的人分析得出的结论。1989年的日推荐摄入量是19到50岁的女性100微克,同年龄的男性则是200 微克。

Where do we get folate?从哪里得到叶酸?

More than one-third of the folate in the American diet is provided by fruits and vegetables. Grain products contribute a little more than one-fifth and legumes, nuts, and seeds contributed a little less than one-fifth. Foods that contain small amounts of folate but are not considered good sources can contribute significant amounts of folate to an individual diet if these foods are eaten often or in large amounts.
美国人食物中超过1/3的叶酸来自水果和食物。谷物及其制品提供了1/5强,豆类坚果和果实提供了略少于1/5的叶酸。有的食物还有很少量的叶酸,被认为是叶酸的较差来源,但是如果个体食用的次数很频繁或者量很大的话,它们提供的叶酸的量也是很可观的。

Why do we need folate?我们为什么需要叶酸

Folate, a water-soluble vitamin, helps the body form red blood cells and aids in the formation of genetic material within every body cell.
叶酸,一种水溶性的维生素,能维持红细胞的形状和帮助构成每个人体细胞中存在遗传物质。

Functions of Folate叶酸的作用

● Plays a role in reducing blood homosysteine levels
● Formation of red blood cells 红细胞的组成部分
● Protein metabolism 参与蛋白代谢
● Cell growth and division 参与细胞的生长和降解
● Prevention of neural tube defects and anencephaly预防神经管缺陷和无脑儿(NTDs)的产生
To prevent these defects adequate folate should be obtained in the first month of pregnancy
All neural tube defects occur between the 17th and 30th days following conception.
为了预防这些缺陷,在妊娠的第一个月里应该获得足够的叶酸。从理论上讲,所有的神经管缺陷都是发生在孕后17到30天内。

Do we get enough folate?我们是否获得了足够的叶酸?

According to recent surveys of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the average intake of folate by nonpregnant women and men 19 to 50 years of age met their RDA for folate.
美国农业部的最新调查,19到50岁非孕妇女和男人的平均摄入量与推荐摄入量持平。
Where can I find folate in the food guidance system?
如何依照这个指南中获得足够的叶酸

Grains谷物
● Fortified breakfast cereal 加强的早餐谷物
● Whole wheat products 全麦产品

Meat and Beans 肉类与豆类   
● Liver 肝脏
● Eggs 蛋类
● Beans 豆类
● Sunflower seeds 葵花籽

Vegetables excellent Source! 蔬菜 叶酸极好的来源
● Asparagus 芦笋
● Leafy green vegetables 绿色蔬菜叶

Fruits水果
● Oranges 桔子
● Strawberries 草莓
● Cantaloupes and other melons 哈密瓜以及其他果品

Milk, Yogurt, Cheese, Fats, Oils, and Sweets are poor sources of folate
牛奶,酸奶酪,奶酪,脂肪,油和糖果不是叶酸的优质来源。
您需要登录后才可以回帖 登录 | 注册

本版积分规则

小黑屋|手机版|Archiver|网上读书园地

GMT+8, 2022-9-27 12:57 , Processed in 0.092265 second(s), 8 queries , Redis On.

Powered by Discuz! X3.4

Copyright © 2001-2021, Tencent Cloud.

快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表